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View more CFD trading examples. CFD trading enables you to sell short an instrument if you believe it will fall in value, with the aim of profiting from the predicted downward price move.
If your prediction turns out to be correct, you can buy the instrument back at a lower price to make a profit. If you are incorrect and the value rises, you will make a loss.
This loss can exceed your deposits. If you have already invested in an existing portfolio of physical shares with another broker and you think they may lose some of their value over the short term, you can hedge your physical shares using CFDs.
By short selling the same shares as CFDs, you can try and make a profit from the short-term downtrend to offset any loss from your existing portfolio.
You could then close out of your CFD trade to secure your profits as the short-term downtrend comes to an end and the value of your physical shares starts to rise again.
Using CFDs to hedge physical share portfolios is a popular strategy for many investors, especially in volatile markets. Learn you can trade other types of shares such as penny stocks and develop your own trading strategy.
Attend one of our regular webinars or seminars and improve your CFD trading skills. Experience our powerful online platform with pattern recognition scanner, price alerts and module linking.
Start trading on a demo account. CMC Markets is an execution-only service provider. The material whether or not it states any opinions is for general information purposes only, and does not take into account your personal circumstances or objectives.
Nothing in this material is or should be considered to be financial, investment or other advice on which reliance should be placed. No opinion given in the material constitutes a recommendation by CMC Markets or the author that any particular investment, security, transaction or investment strategy is suitable for any specific person.
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Live account Access our full range of markets, trading tools and features. In finance, a contract for difference CFD is a contract between two parties, typically described as "buyer" and "seller", stipulating that the seller will pay to the buyer the difference between the current value of an asset and its value at contract time if the difference is negative, then the buyer pays instead to the seller.
In effect, CFDs are derivatives that allow traders to take advantage of prices moving up long positions or prices moving down short positions on all underlying financial instruments.
They are often used to speculate on markets. A CFD is a tool of leverage with its own potential profits and losses.
It allows an investor to enter the global trading market without directly dealing with shares, indices, commodities or currency pairs. CFDs were originally developed in the early s in London as a type of equity swap that was traded on margin.
They were initially used by hedge funds and institutional traders to cost-effectively hedge their exposure to stocks on the London Stock Exchange , mainly because they required only a small margin.
Moreover, since no physical shares changed hands, it also avoided the stamp duty in the United Kingdom. In the late s, CFDs were introduced to retail traders.
They were popularized by a number of UK companies, characterized by innovative online trading platforms that made it easy to see live prices and trade in real time.
In the UK, the CFD market mirrors the financial spread betting market and the products are in many ways the same.
However, unlike CFDs, which have been exported to a number of different countries, spread betting, inasmuch as it relies on a country-specific tax advantage, has remained primarily a UK and Irish phenomenon.
They are not permitted in a number of other countries — most notably the United States, where, due to rules about over the counter products, CFDs cannot be traded by retail investors unless on a registered exchange and there are no exchanges in the US that offer CFDs.
As a result, a small percentage of CFDs were traded through the Australian exchange during this period. The advantages and disadvantages of having an exchange traded CFD were similar for most financial products and meant reducing counterparty risk and increasing transparency but costs were higher.
In October , LCH. Within Europe, any provider based in any member country can offer the products to all member countries under MiFID and many of the European financial regulators responded with new rules on CFDs after the warning.
The majority of providers are based in either Cyprus or the UK and both countries' financial regulators were first to respond. CySEC the Cyprus financial regulator, where many of the firms are registered, increased the regulations on CFDs by limiting the maximum leverage to To support new low carbon electricity generation in the United Kingdom, both nuclear and renewable , Contracts for Difference CfD were introduced by the Energy Act , progressively replacing the previous Renewables Obligation scheme.
A House of Commons Library report explained the scheme as: Contracts for Difference CfD are a system of reverse auctions intended to give investors the confidence and certainty they need to invest in low carbon electricity generation.
CfDs have also been agreed on a bilateral basis, such as the agreement struck for the Hinkley Point C nuclear plant. CfDs work by fixing the prices received by low carbon generation, reducing the risks they face, and ensuring that eligible technology receives a price for generated power that supports investment.
CfDs also reduce costs by fixing the price consumers pay for low carbon electricity. This requires generators to pay money back when wholesale electricity prices are higher than the strike price, and provides financial support when the wholesale electricity prices are lower.
The main risk is market risk , as contract for difference trading is designed to pay the difference between the opening price and the closing price of the underlying asset.
CFDs are traded on margin, and the leveraging effect of this increases the risk significantly. It is this very risk that drives the use of CFDs, either to speculate on movements in financial markets or to hedge existing positions in other products.
Users typically deposit an amount of money with the CFD provider to cover the margin and can lose much more than this deposit if the market moves against them.
If prices move against open CFD position additional variation margin is required to maintain the margin level.
The CFD providers may call upon the party to deposit additional sums to cover this, and in fast moving markets this may be at short notice. Counterparty risk is associated with the financial stability or solvency of the counterparty to a contract.
In the context of CFD contracts, if the counterparty to a contract fails to meet their financial obligations, the CFD may have little or no value regardless of the underlying instrument.
This means that a CFD trader could potentially incur severe losses, even if the underlying instrument moves in the desired direction.
OTC CFD providers are required to segregate client funds protecting client balances in event of company default, but cases such as that of MF Global remind us that guarantees can be broken.
Exchange-traded contracts traded through a clearing house are generally believed to have less counterparty risk.
Ultimately, the degree of counterparty risk is defined by the credit risk of the counterparty, including the clearing house if applicable.
There are a number of different financial instruments that have been used in the past to speculate on financial markets.
These range from trading in physical shares either directly or via margin lending, to using derivatives such as futures, options or covered warrants.
A number of brokers have been actively promoting CFDs as alternatives to all of these products. The CFD market most resembles the futures and options market, the major differences being: Professionals prefer future contracts for indices and interest rate trading over CFDs as they are a mature product and are exchange traded.
The main advantages of CFDs, compared to futures, is that contract sizes are smaller making it more accessible for small trader and pricing is more transparent.
Futures contracts tend to only converge near to the expiry date compared to the price of the underlying instrument which does not occur on the CFD as it never expires and simply mirrors the underlying instrument.
Futures are often used by the CFD providers to hedge their own positions and many CFDs are written over futures as futures prices are easily obtainable.
The industry practice is for the CFD provider to ' roll ' the CFD position to the next future period when the liquidity starts to dry in the last few days before expiry, thus creating a rolling CFD contract.
Options , like futures, are established products that are exchange traded, centrally cleared and used by professionals. Options, like futures, can be used to hedge risk or to take on risk to speculate.
CFDs are only comparable in the latter case. An important disadvantage is that a CFD cannot be allowed to lapse, unlike an option.
This means that the downside risk of a CFD is unlimited, whereas the most that can be lost on an option is the price of the option itself. In addition, no margin calls are made on options if the market moves against the trader.
Compared to CFDs, option pricing is complex and has price decay when nearing expiry while CFDs prices simply mirror the underlying instrument.
CFDs cannot be used to reduce risk in the way that options can. Similar to options, covered warrants have become popular in recent years as a way of speculating cheaply on market movements.
CFDs costs tend to be lower for short periods and have a much wider range of underlying products.